Description of registrant's securities
Our authorized capital stock includes 75,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share. As of March 31, 2020, there were 49,893,534 shares of common stock issued and outstanding, and 33,333 shares of common stock held in the treasury. The following description of the rights of the common stock do not apply to the treasury shares.
The holders of outstanding common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of assets legally available therefor at such times and in such amounts as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine. Each stockholder is entitled to one vote for each share of common stock held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. Directors are elected by plurality vote. Therefore, the holders of a majority of the common stock voted can elect all of the directors then standing for election. The common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights and is not subject to conversion. If we are liquidated or dissolved or our business is otherwise wound up, the holders of common stock would be entitled to share ratably in the distribution of all of our assets remaining available for distribution after satisfaction of all our liabilities and the payment of the liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred shares.
Authorized but Unissued Common Stock
The Delaware General Corporation Law does not require stockholder approval for any issuance of authorized shares, except in certain limited circumstances. However, the listing requirements of the NYSE American, which apply for so long as our common stock is listed on the NYSE American, require stockholder approval of certain issuances (other than a public offering) equal to or exceeding 20% of the then outstanding voting power or then outstanding number of shares of common stock, as well as for certain issuances of stock in compensatory transactions. We will not need to obtain stockholder approval for the issuance of the common stock to be sold in this offering. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings, to raise additional capital or to facilitate acquisitions. One of the effects of the existence of unissued and unreserved shares of common stock may be to enable our Board of Directors to sell shares to persons friendly to current management, for such consideration, in form and amount, as is acceptable to the Board, which issuance could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and thereby protect the continuity of our management and possibly deprive stockholders of opportunities to sell their common stock at prices higher than prevailing market prices.
We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL. This provision generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years following the date the stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless:
• prior to such date, the board of directors approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
• upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the number of voting shares outstanding those shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or
• on or subsequent to such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual meeting or special meeting of stockholders and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Section 203 defines a business combination to include:
• any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;
• any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;
• subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;
• any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or
• the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.
In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of a corporation, or an affiliate or associate of the corporation and was the owner of 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of a corporation at any time within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status; and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.
These statutory provisions could delay or frustrate the removal of incumbent directors or a change in control of us. They could also discourage, impede, or prevent a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest, even if such event would be favorable to the interests of stockholders.
Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaw Provisions
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could have the effect of discouraging potential acquisition proposals or making a tender offer or delaying or preventing a change in control, including changes a stockholder might consider favorable. In particular, the certificate of incorporation and bylaws, as applicable, among other things:
• provide our board of directors with the ability to alter its bylaws without stockholder approval; and
• provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled by a majority of directors in office, although less than a quorum.
Such provisions may have the effect of discouraging a third-party from acquiring us, even if doing so would be beneficial to our stockholders. These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of our board of directors and in the policies formulated by them, and to discourage some types of transactions that may involve an actual or threatened change in control of us. These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal and to discourage some tactics that may be used in proxy fights. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure our Company outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging such proposals because, among other things, negotiation of such proposals could result in an improvement of their terms. However, these provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts. These provisions also may have the effect of preventing changes in our management.
Our certificate of incorporation provides that no director is personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duty by such director as a director. Nonetheless, a director is liable to the extent provided by applicable law, (i) for breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) pursuant to Section 174 of the DGCL (relating to unlawful payment of dividend or unlawful stock purchase or redemption) or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit. If the DGCL is amended to authorize the further elimination or limitation of the liability of directors, then the liability of one of our directors, in addition to the limitation on personal liability provided in our certificate of incorporation, will be limited to the fullest extent permitted by the amended DGCL. No amendment to or repeal of the relevant article of our certificate of incorporation will apply to or have any effect on the liability or alleged liability of any of our directors for or with respect to any acts or omissions of such director occurring prior to such amendment.
Our certificate of incorporation furthermore states that we shall indemnify, to the fullest extent permitted by Section 145 of the DGCL, as amended from time to time, each person that such section grants us the power to indemnify. Insofar as indemnification for liability under the Securities Act may be permitted for our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.
We have not declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock, and we do not anticipate declaring or paying cash dividends for the foreseeable future. We are not subject to any legal restrictions respecting the payment of dividends, except that we may not pay dividends if the payment would render us insolvent. Any future determination as to the payment of cash dividends on our common stock will be at our board of directors’ discretion and will depend on our financial condition, operating results, capital requirements and other factors that our board of directors considers to be relevant. Currently, the board of directors does not intend to pay any cash dividends, but retain all funds for working capital.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock and warrants is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.