Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Note 1 - Summary of Accounting Policies

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Note 1 - Summary of Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2016
Notes to Financial Statements  
Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]
NOTE
– 1 SUMMARY OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES
 
1.
    
Principles of Consolidation
 
 
             The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) and include the accounts of Milestone Scientific and its wholly owned and majority owned subsidiaries, including Wand Dental, Milestone Advanced Cosmetic Systems, Inc., as well as Milestone Medical Inc. (“Milestone Medical”) and  Milestone Education LLC (“Milestone Education”), both variable interest entities for which Milestone Scientific is the primary beneficiary. All significant, intra-entity transactions and balances have been eliminated in the consolidation.   
 
2.
    
Reclassifications
 
Certai
n reclassifications have been made to the 2015 financial statements to conform to the consolidated 2016 financial statement presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on net loss or cash flows as previously reported.
 
3. Variable Interest Entitie
s
 
A variable interest entity (“
VIE”) is an entity that either (i) has insufficient equity to permit the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support or (ii) has equity investors who lack the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. A VIE is consolidated by its primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary has both the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance and the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the entity that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
 
If Milestone Scientific determines that it has operating power and the obligation to absorb losses or receive benefits, Milestone Scientific consolidates the VIE as
the primary beneficiary. Milestone Scientific’s involvement constitutes power that is most significant to the entity when it has unconstrained decision making ability over key operational functions within the entity.
 
 
           Milestone Scientific is the primary beneficiary of Milestone Medical through December 31, 2015 (see Note 3) and Milestone Education, as VIEs. Accordingly, the assets and liabilities of Milestone Medical and Milestone Education are included in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. See Note 3 for further details regarding the treatment of the VIE.
 
Because
  Milestone Scientific had an increasing  variable interest in  Milestone China, it further considered the guidance in Accounting Standard Codification ("ASC") 810 as it relates to determining whether Milestone China is a VIE and, if so, identifying the primary beneficiary. As Milestone China’s equity at risk and voting rights were not proportional to their economic interest, Milestone China was determined to be a VIE. Milestone Scientific would be considered the primary beneficiary of the VIE if it has both of the following characteristics:
 
 
Power Criterion
: The power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance;
 
 
Losses/Benefits Criterion
: The obligation to absorb losses that could potentially be significant or the right to receive benefits that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
 
Milestone management does not have the ability to control the activities that most significantly impact China
’s economics and, therefore, the power criterion has not been met. Management placed the most weight on the relationship and significance of activities of China to the majority shareholder/CEO of Milestone China.  As majority shareholder, majority holder of voting rights, and the active CEO, the 53% investor has the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of China. Management has concludes that Milestone Scientific is not the primary beneficiary under ASC 810. Accordingly, Milestone China has not been consolidated into the financial statements of Milestone Scientific and continues to be accounted for under the equity method (see Note 4).
 
        
         
4. Cash
 
Milestone Scientific considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
 
5. Accounts Receivable
 
Milestone Scientific sells a significant amount of its product on credit terms to its major distributors. Milestone Scientific estimates losses from the inability of its customers to make payments on amounts billed. A majority of c
redit sales are due within ninety days from invoicing. There have not been any significant credit losses incurred by Milestone Scientific.
 
6. Product Return and Warranty
 
Milestone Scientific does not accept non-defective returns from its customers. Pro
duct returns under warranty are accepted, evaluated and repaired or replaced in accordance with the Warranty Policy. Returns not within the Warranty Policy are evaluated and the customer is charged for the repair.
 
7. Inventories
 
Inventories principall
y consist of finished goods and component parts stated at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or market. Inventory quantities on hand are reviewed on a quarterly basis and a provision for excess and obsolete inventory is recorded if required based on past and expected future sales, potential technological obsolescence and product expiration requirement and regulations.
 
8. Equity Method Investments
 
Investments in which we have the ability to exercise significant influence, but do not
control, are accounted for under the equity method of accounting and are included in the long term assets on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Under this method of accounting, our share of the net earnings or losses of the investee is presented below the income tax line on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. We evaluate our equity method investments whenever events or changes in circumstance indicate that the carrying amounts of such investments may be impaired. If a decline in the value of an equity method investment is determined to be other than temporary, a loss is recorded in earnings in the current period.
 
9. Furniture, Fixture and Equipment
            
 
Equipment is recorded at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Deprec
iation expense is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from five to seven years. The costs of maintenance and repairs are charged to operations as incurred.
 
 
10.
  Intangible Assets - Patents
 
Patents are recorded at cost to prepare and file the applicable documents with the United States Patent Office, or internationally with the applicable governmental office in the respective country. Although certain patents have not yet been approved, the
costs related to these patents are being amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the patent. If the applicable patent application is ultimately rejected, the remaining unamortized balance will be expensed in the period in which Milestone Scientific receives notice of such rejection.  Patent defense costs, to the extent applicable are expensed as incurred.  Patent applications filed and patents obtained in foreign countries are subject to the laws and procedures that differ from those in the United States. Patent protection in foreign countries may be different from patent protection under United States laws and may not be favorable to Milestone Scientific. Milestone Scientific also attempts to protect the proprietary information through the use of confidentiality agreements and by limiting access to its facilities. There can be no assurance that the program of patents, confidentiality agreements and restricted access to the facilities will be sufficient to protect the proprietary technology.
 
11. Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
 
Milestone Scientific reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or circumstances (i.e. a triggering event) indicate that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable. The carrying value
of the assets is evaluated in relation to the operating performance and future undiscounted cash flows of the underlying assets. Milestone Scientific adjusts the net book value of an underlying asset if its fair value is determined to be less than its net book value. There have been no impairment indicators or triggering events and therefore, no impairment reviews have been performed in the period ending September 30, 2016.
 
12. Revenue Recognition
 
Revenue from product sales is recognized net of discou
nts and allowances to domestic distributors on the date of shipment for essentially all shipments, since the shipment terms are FOB warehouse. Milestone Scientific will recognize revenue on date of arrival of the goods at the customer’s location, where shipments are FOB destination. Shipments to international distributors are FOB warehouse, therefore revenue is recognized on shipment of the goods. In all cases the price to the buyer is fixed and the collectability is reasonably assured. Further, Milestone Scientific has no obligation on these sales for any post installation, set-up or maintenance, these being the responsibility of the buyer. Milestone Scientific’s only obligation after sale is the normal commercial warranty against manufacturing defects if the alleged defective unit is returned within the warranty period. 
 
13. Shipping and Handling Costs
 
Milestone Scientific includes shipping and handling costs in cost of goods sold. These costs are billed to customers at the time of shipment for domesti
c shipments. International shipments are FOB warehouse, therefore no costs are incurred by Milestone Scientific.
 
14. Research and Development
 
Research and development costs, which consist principally of new product
development costs payable to third parties, are expensed as incurred. Advance payments for the research are amortized to expense either as services are performed or over the relevant service period using the straight line method.
 
15. Income Taxes
 
Milestone Scientific accounts for income taxes pursuant to the asset and liability method which requires deferred income tax assets and liabilities to be computed for temporary differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabil
ities that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in the future based on enacted tax laws and rates applicable to the periods in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
 
16. Recent Accounting Pronouncements
 
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“
FASB”) issued guidance for revenue recognition for contracts, superseding the previous revenue recognition requirements, along with most existing industry-specific guidance. The guidance requires an entity to review contracts in five steps: 1) identify the contract, 2) identify performance obligations, 3) determine the transaction price, 4) allocate the transaction price, and 5) recognize revenue. The new standard will result in enhanced disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue arising from contracts with customers. In August 2015, the FASB issued guidance approving a one-year deferral, making the standard effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted only for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. The FASB continues to release guidance clarifying certain aspects of the revenue guidance. We do not believe that this new accounting pronouncement will have a material impact on our financial statements.
 
 
             In August 2014, the FASB issued a new standard Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No.2014-15, “Presentation of Financial Statements – Going Concern” (Subtopic 205-40).The new standard is intended to increase the disclosure as it relates to management’s assessment of the abilities to continue as a going concern.  The standard will be effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016. Milestone Scientific will be adopting this standard with its annual reporting of December 31, 2016 to include enhanced disclosures as it relates to management’s considerations.
 
In November 2015, the FASB is
sued guidance simplifying the balance sheet classification of deferred taxes. The new guidance requires that all deferred taxes be presented as noncurrent, rather than separated into current and noncurrent amounts. The guidance is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and early adoption is permitted. In addition, the adoption of guidance can be applied either prospectively or retrospectively to all periods presented.
 
In February 2016, the FASB issued a new standard ASU No.2016
-02, “Leases“(Topic 842). The new standard is intended to increase transparency and comparability among organizations to recognize lease assets and liabilities on the balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. It will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and for interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. Milestone Scientific is in the process of determining what impact, if any, the adoption of this ASU will have on its financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
 
In March 2016, the FASB issued a new standard ASU No.2016-07, “
Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures” (Topic 323): The new standard is intended to eliminate the requirement that when an investment qualifies for the use of the equity method as a result of an in increase in the level of ownership or degree of influence, results of operations and retained earnings retroactively on a step-by-step basis as if the equity method had been in effect all of the previous periods that the investment was held. It will be effective for all entities for fiscal years and interim periods, beginning after December 15, 2016. Milestone Scientific is in the process of determining what impact, if any, the adoption of this ASU will have on its financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
 
In March 2016, the FASB issued a new standard ASU No.2016-09, “
Compensation – Stock Compensation” (Topic 718). The new standard is intended to clarify certain reporting aspects relating to stock based compensation, relating primarily to forfeitures, tax impacts and cash flow presentation. Certain attributes will be treated prospectively, while others will require a retroactive application. Generally, the changes will be effective for fiscal years and interim periods, beginning after December 15, 2016. Milestone Scientific is in the process of determining what impact, if any, the adoption of this ASU will have on its financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
 
In June 2016, the FASB issued a new standard ASU No.2016-13, “
Financial Instruments – Credit Losses” (Topic 326).: The new standard is intended to replace the incurred loss impairment methodology in current GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. It will be effective for all entities for fiscal years and interim periods, beginning after December 15, 2019. Milestone Scientific is in the process of determining what impact, if any, the adoption of this ASU will have on its financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
 
In August 2016, the FASB issued a new standard ASU No.2016-15, “
Statement of Cash Flows – Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Disbursements” (Topic 230). The new standard provides guidance as to the conformity of presentation of certain cash receipts and disbursements. It will be effective for all entities for fiscal years and interim periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. Milestone Scientific is in the process of determining what impact, if any, the adoption of this ASU will have on its presentation within the statement of cash flows.
 
We have evaluated al
l other issued and unadopted ASUs and believe the adoption of these standards will not have a material impact on its results of operations, financial position, or cash flows of its common stock.